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If a business drops its price will it always increase demand – and will it make more profit?

Posted by kinyawa@gmail.com on August 15, 2017 in Uncategorized |
   
   
         
      BUS100 Professional Communication Skills
      Assessment 2 Details
Assessment Type: Annotated Bibliography (Reference List) – Individual assessment.
      5 sources plus 500-800 words annotation.
Purpose: This assessment allows students to develop research skills and begin to
      develop critical analysis skills by finding and evaluating a range of different
      but relevant reference sources relating to a given topic.. This assessment
      contributes to Learning Outcomes a, c, and e.
Value: 30%  
Due Date: Week 6 – 5.00pm Friday of Week 6 – 18 August 2017
Submission: Electronically through KOI’s Moodle subject home page as a Word .doc or
      .docx – the font should be ARIAL 10 point.
Topic: A current business topic – the specific topic will be advised in class and via
      Moodle. This business topic will form the focus of Assessments 2, 3 and 4
      during the trimester.
Task Details: Annotated Bibliography (Reference List)
      (See Moodle for more details and worked examples).

In academia, as in business, good reports demonstrate the ability to research and identify relevant material to be used as the basis for considering a question, supporting argument and arriving at justified conclusions or recommendations. While there may be many sources relating to any given topic or question, some will be far more suitable than others.

 

Good relevant supporting material will be:

 

  • Relevant

 

  • Recent (unless considered a seminal or classic article/book)

 

  • Credible

 

Using the topic given, students need to research and identify 5 different sources which would be relevant if preparing an analysis report for the topic given. Included in the bibliography should be:

 

  • At least 1 peer reviewed article

 

  • At least 1 website

 

  • At least 1 magazine or newspaper article

 

  • At least 1 of the sources reviewed must fail to meet the some or all of the 3 criteria of good supporting material – relevant, recent and credible i.e. be a source you have viewed but decided it would not be appropriate to use – explain why it is not appropriate.

 

Wiki anything and About.com MUST NOT be included in your sources – good or otherwise.

 

For each source, pairs are to:

  1. Cite the material correctly using Harvard (Anglia) referencing style

 

  1. Briefly summarise the main findings or arguments of the source

 

  1. Briefly critique (evaluate) the source’s usefulness, reliability, objectivity or bias, assessing its strengths and/or weaknesses as if you were writing a research paper on the topic given.

 

Points 2 and 3 should be between 100 and 160 words per source (500 – 800 words total).

 

Presentation

 

Assessments should be formatted as follows:

 

  • Word .doc or .docx

 

  • Font – Arial 10pt

 

  • Title page

 

  • A 1 line space between each of: heading, citation, summary paragraph, evaluation paragraph

 

 

 

 

 

 

  • Each source identified by a heading made up by the Title in italics and the source type.

Example:

Source 1: Imported and Domestic beef – substitutes or complements, peer-reviewed journal article.

 

Worked examples of an annotated bibliography will be provided in class and via Moodle. Students should carefully read and follow the guidelines given in the document BUS100 Annotated-Bibliography-Helpsheet to maximise their presentation marks for the assessment.

 

Marking Guide: The marking rubric following will be used to mark Assessment 2.  
             
        Distinction High  
CRITERIA Fail 0-49% Pass 50-59% Credit 60-69% Distinction  
70-79%  
        80-100%  
           
Quantity and Document cites          
variety of fewer than the Document cites   Document cites    
sources number of   Document cites  
the number of Document cites the the number and  
  sources outlined the number and  
  sources outlined number and variety variety of  
  in the variety of sources  
  in the assignment of sources outlined sources outlined  
  assignment outlined in the  
/ 10 but misses 1 type in the assignment. in the  
and/or misses assignment.  
  of source.   assignment.  
  more than 1 type      
           
  of source.          
Summary of Most or all All summaries are 3 summaries are      
Sources      
summaries are All summaries    
attempted but 3 done well but 2 are All summaries are  
   
  lacking in except 1 are  
  are lacking in lacking in thoughtful,  
  completeness, thoughtful,  
  completeness, completeness, complete, and  
  thought, and/or complete, and  
  thought, and/or thought, and /or well summarised.  
  quality of well summarised.  
/ 25 writing quality. quality of summary.    
summary.      
           
             
Evaluation of The reliability of The reliability of 3        
Sources   The reliability of The reliability of  
3 or more or more sources is The reliability of all  
  all except 1 all sources is  
  sources is either either clearly or except 2 sources is  
  source is clearly clearly and  
  not clearly and/or correctly clearly and correctly  
  and correctly correctly  
  not correctly identified, but not identified.  
  identified. identified.  
/ 25 identified. both.    
       
           
             
Citation There are There are citation There are citation There are citation    
presentation    
citation elements elements missing elements missing in All citations have  
elements missing  
   
  missing in 3 or in 2 document 2 of the document all necessary  
  in 1 of the  
  more sources, citations, or 2 citations, or 2 elements, and are  
  document citations  
  incorrect citation elements missing elements missing in presented  
  style used, or in 1 citation. 1 citation, but the but all others are consistently using  
/ 20 correct. Correct  
some or all Citation style is rest are correct. the nominated  
  citation style used  
  sources not consistent but not Correct citation style citation style.  
  throughout.  
  cited. Harvard (Anglia used throughout.    
       
             
Presentation –     Language used is Language used    
language and     better than a Pass    
    is above the    
style   Language used is graded but still    
  average standard Language used is  
    acceptable but contains some  
  Language used – mostly very professional  
  contains errors grammatical errors  
  is not acceptable grammatically and the  
  and the and lacks  
  and/or the assessment is sophistication in correct and uses assessment is  
/ 20 assessment is some presented as  
mainly presented choice and use of  
not presented as sophistication in required with  
   
  as required but no words. The  
  required – many choice and use additional effort in  
  additional effort assessment is  
  errors. or words. The presentation  
  made – some presented as  
    assessment is obvious.  
    errors. required but  
    presented as    
      contains some minor    
      required.    
      errors.    
           

 

The total marks will be scaled to a mark out of 30.

 

 

 

 

 

Things to think about when finding and evaluating your sources

 

Evaluating a source:

 

Good relevant supporting material will be:

  • Relevant – is the source on a similar topic e.g.

 

o    an article about accounting practices in Botswana, Russia or China are not likely to have much relevance to accounting practices in Australia,

 

  • an article about organisational structures in multinational Australian companies is unlikely to be relevant for an assignment about structuring a café business in Australia

 

  • an article about business management practices in the USA or UK is probably going to have relevance for an assignment about business management practices in Australia (provided the organisations are reasonably similar in size and industry)

 

  • Recent (unless considered a seminal or classic article/book) – usually the more recent the better for business management and accounting studies
    • If using older articles consider:

 

  • How has the world or the situation changed since the article was written e.g. if you are writing about the financial growth opportunities, anything pre 2007-2008 (the Global Financial Crisis) is less likely to be relevant

 

  • If discussing successful car brands, articles about the success of the Volkswagen brand written before 2015 (emissions scandal) are probably out

 

of date

 

  • The exception is original thinking which forms the basis of most current thinking e.g. Henry Fayol (1841 – 1925) developed 14 General Principles of Managerial Effectiveness, many of which are still considered the basis of good management, however given the changes in the business environment of today, may not be completely relevant to a given set of business circumstances. Using such a source to support your theories would need careful discussion of how it still applies.

 

  • Credible – very important if using websites, or really anything to support your point of view. To determine credibility you need to consider the accuracy, authority, coverage, currency and objectivity of the source.

 

  • A website created by Sarah Coates for a project for her LIS 5503: Information Literacy and Instruction class, offered by the University of Oklahoma’s School of

 

Library and Information Studies in the Spring of 2011 is an excellent resource to help students find and evaluate credible sources  https://sites.google.com/site/evaluatingsourcecredibility/home

 

  • For both sides of the credibility argument over a piece of published research used to support a current marketing campaign, try googling A2 milk research credibility – you will find many articles, websites and arguments for both sides of the argument – also an interesting exercise on possible bias in research outcomes.

 

Source Types

 

You have been asked to find and evaluate 5 sources.

 

The sources need to be about the topic chosen by those who voted:

 

  • you may choose to find sources about the topic generally,

 

  • or you may choose to focus on sources that might more directly relate to a particular point about the topic you wish to discuss.

 

You must include:

 

  • At least 1 peer reviewed article – use EBSCOHOST via the Moodle links to develop your research finding skills

 

  • At least 1 website – the website could be a government Website, a company or professional organisation website, or website created by a single person (blog type websites) – a google or other search using your preferred search words will reveal many possible websites

Hint: look through a few of the search results rather than just the first or second website

 

listed – makes your research a bit more interesting

o  Do not use a source with  [PDF] beside the website name for this section

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  • At least 1 magazine or newspaper article – either print or electronic can be used – the article source could be an independent newspaper such as the Sydney Morning Herald or Telegraph, an industry or organisational magazine, any online ezine

 

  • At least 1 of the sources reviewed must fail to meet the some or all of the 3 criteria of good supporting material – relevant, recent and credible i.e. be a source you have viewed but decided it would not be appropriate to use – explain why it is not appropriate. This source can be any of the above types, but is less likely to be a peer-reviewed article.

 

 

 

Also refer to the Annotated Bibliography Help sheet for more assistance and information.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

BUS100 A2 Detail – updated 28/07/2017                                                                           Page 4 of 4

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Business plan

Posted by kinyawa@gmail.com on August 15, 2017 in Uncategorized |

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Brand Positioning Analysis

Posted by kinyawa@gmail.com on August 15, 2017 in Uncategorized |

Brand Positioning Analysis

Value: 15%

Due date: 16-Aug-2017

Length: 750 words

 

Task

Your task is to pick three brands from any Australian sector or industry, and evaluate the observed positioning of each brand. For example, the Australian fast-food (or quick-service-restaurant) sector has brands such as, McDonald’s, KFC, Subway and Hungry Jack’s. For this assessment, choose any three brands from a single sector/industry.

Then, address the following questions for each brand:

What is the brand’s target market? 
What are each brand’s points-of-parity (POPs) and points-of-difference (PODs)?
How might each brand’s PODs be improved?

REMEMBER that you will not be privy to the actual positioning strategies of firms. For this assessment, the focus is on applying the brand positioning concepts to observable brand actions in the marketplace. That is, your analysis and interpretation is key.
Rationale

This assessment is designed to get you to engage with the subject material early on in the semester. Positioning is a central concept in branding and vital to the long-term health of brand. By getting you to demonstrate your understanding of the brand positioning concept and its application to actual brands, this assessment seeks to establish strong foundations for learning in the subject. The assessment addresses the first learning outcome.

Marking criteria

The assessment will be marked on the content and range of ideas presented as well the ability to address the issues as hand. Please refer to the rubric below.

   HD (85-100%) D (75-84%) CR (65-74%) P (64-50%) F (< 50%)
Positioning Analysis /10 Comprehensive knowledge of brand positioning topic is demonstrated with a thorough discussion of the POPs/PODs and target market profile of each brand. Additionally, appropriate terminology is used throughout. Reasonable knowledge of brand positioning is demonstrated along with appropriate terminology. The POPs and PODs are clearly identified, though some aspects are either ignored or require additional consideration. There is an adequate discussion of the target market for each brand. A competent attempt has been made by outlining POPs and PODs for each brand. Appropriate terminology is demonstrated. There are aspects/elements that are either deficient in terms of either target market profile, brand positioning knowledge or its application to the chosen brands. The reports offers evidence of limited knowledge of brand positioning. The POPs and PODs of each brands are not clearly identified, and/or the target market descriptions are confusing/unclear. Minimal use of appropriate terminology is demonstrated. Lacks evidence of knowledge relevant to the topic and/or significantly misuses terminology
Recommendations /10 Has addressed the purpose of the question comprehensively and imaginatively, and has offered recommendations that are theoretically supported and derive directly from the analysis. Recommendations are mostly robust and derive mostly from the analysis, though require additional clarification at some points. Recommendations are mostly accurate, however, there is room for further improvement. Some issues remain unaddressed and/or stronger links with the analysis is required. There is a minimal attempt at making recommendations and/or the recommendations do not derive directly from the analysis. No recommendations are provided and/or the recommendations lack specificity to the context at hand.

 

 

Presentation

Please refer to the ‘Presentation’ section under ‘Assessment Information’

 

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case study on whooping cough

Posted by kinyawa@gmail.com on August 15, 2017 in Uncategorized |
Assessment 1 Assignment
Format Assignment
Due Date Thursday 17th August 2017 at 23:55
Weighting 40%
Pass mark Not applicable
Length 1500 words
 

Details

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Submission

Case study

You are the nurse looking after Kyle, a 2 year old male admitted to the Paediatric ward with whopping cough. He currently has symptoms of rhinorrhea (runny nose), red, bloodshot eyes, a temperature of 379 degrees Celsius and a paroxysmal cough (repetitive, forceful coughs).  Kyle appears lethargic and apathetic.

Instructions: Structure your assignment so that it meets the following requirements: You may use headings.

1. Introduction. (approx 250 words). Serves as a “map” of the essay, outlining to the reader the key points contained in the body of the work.

2. Discussion of Activities of Living (AoL’s) related to the Case Study – Breathing and Controlling Body Temperature (approx. 600 words)

Discuss how the AoL’s of breathing and controlling body temperature have been altered for Kyle.  Your answer must include the following:

·         An overview of how the two AoL’s may be affected

·         How you would assess Kyle in relation to the the two identified AoL’s

·         How you would you treat Kyle’s symptoms for each AoL

3. Nursing Care Plan. (approx 400 words). Using the Nursing Care Plan provided identify one issue related to either breathing or controlling body temperature that has arisen from the case study.  From this issue students are required to formulate a plan/goal for improving this issue, identify strategies for meeting the plan/goal and then discuss what evaluative measures will be taken to determine if the plan/ goal was met.

4. Conclusion (approx 250 words, start a new paragraph). Summarise the key points expressed in the body of the work, as well as the key learning from your research.

Refer to marking guide on the next page of this document

Please refer to detailed information on Submission of Assignments specific to your campus/education centre within your Subject Outline

 

Refer to marking guide on the next page of this document

Please refer to detailed information on Submission of Assignments specific to your campus/education centre within your Subject Outline

                                     

 

 

 

NMIH 107 Essentials of Care B

Assessment Task 1: Assignment Marking Guide

 

NAME: ………………………………………………………. STUDENT NO: …………………………….

 

 

 

 

 

Criteria

Absent  

Inadequate

 

 

Satisfactory

 

Good

 

Excellent

 

 

 

Marks

Discussion of AoL’s related to case study provide an overview of the two AoL’s and how they relate to the case study  

 

0

 

 

1-4

 

 

5-9

 

 

10-13

 

 

14-15

 

/15

Discussion of AoL’s related to case study discusses with relevant detail what assessments would be undertaken

 

 

 

0

 

 

1-7

 

 

8-13

 

 

13-17

 

 

18-20

 

/20

Discussion of AoL’s related to case study identifies and discusses relevant treatment of symptoms  

 

0

 

 

1-7

 

 

8-13

 

 

13-17

 

 

18-20

 

/20

Nursing Care Plan identifies a relevant issue and plan/goal, identifies relevant strategies for meeting the goal and discusses relevant evaluative strategies

 

 

 

 

0

 

 

 

1-4

 

 

 

5-9

 

 

 

10-13

 

 

 

14-15

 

 

/15

 Organisation.

Assignment logically developed. Evidence of introduction, body and conclusion. Evidence of linkage and integration of information. Prescribed format used. Adheres to the word limit.

 

 

0

 

 

1-4

 

 

5-6

 

 

7-8

 

 

9-10

 

/10

Language & Style

Appropriate use of language. Technical terms explained where necessary. Range of vocabulary.

It catches the reader’s attention and promotes the           conveying of information. Objective and authentic writing  style.

 

 

0

 

 

1-4

 

 

5-6

 

 

7-8

 

 

9-10

 

 

/10

Presentation.

Syntax, grammar, punctuation and spelling are correct. Legible presentation. Referencing as per Assessment Handbook.

 

 

0

 

 

1-4

 

 

5-6

 

 

7-8

 

 

9-10

 

/10

             
 
 

This assignment is worth 35% of the total assessment for this subject.

/ 100
  Late Penalty (if applicable):

 

 

 Marker:

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Ethics Research Report

Posted by kinyawa@gmail.com on August 15, 2017 in Uncategorized |

Ethics Research Report

Due date: 18-Aug-2017

Return date: 08-Sep-2017

Length: 2000-2500words

 

 

Task

You are required to choose two professional areas in which you have an interest and research those professions codes of conduct/ethics/ behaviour.
For example:
Early childhood: http://www.earlychildhoodaustralia.org.au/code_of_ethics/early_childhood_australias_code_of_ethics.html
Public Relations: http://www.pria.com.au/membercentre/members-code-of-ethics
Marketing research: http://www.amsrs.com.au/professional-standards/amsrs-code-of-professional-behaviour
AHRI: https://www.ahri.com.au/about-us/constitution,-code-of-conduct,-by-laws-and-charters
More information on these is presented in modules.

After researching two professionsal areas prepare a report that:
• Describes what a code of ethics/conduct/ professional behaviour is and why is it important in the work place?
• Describes what ethics and professional conduct means to you in the workplace;
•Describes what  you consider to be ethical behaviour in the light of the two professions you have researched and give at least two examples;
•Decsribes what you consider to be unethical behaviour in the light of the two professions you have researched and give at least two examples; and
• Compares and contrasts the codes of Ethics/conduct/behaviour for the two professions you have chosen.

 

Rationale

Ethics and professional conduct are extremely important in the workplace and different professions have different requirements and expectations of the people within the professions. To develop your career you will need an understanding of these for your chosen profession but you will also need to understand the requirements if you are to join a professional association. For some professions membership of a professional association is mandatory and you will need to be working towards acquiring the experience and credibility to be able to join the professional association.

 

 

Presentation

Your report should consist of:
• Title page;
• Table of contents;
• Executive Summary;( the above are NOT included in the word count)
• Introduction which includes identifying the two professions you are researching;
• Body of the report answering the questions listed above;
• Conclusion; and
• References
Do Not submit in PDF form – these will not be marked.

Requirements

A ‘content structure’ will be placed on Interact for this assessment which students MUST use to complete this assessment.
You MUST complete and submit all components of this assessment.

 

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Teacher feedback on assessment has long been part of teaching and learning proccess and teacher student relationships at university.However, it is likely that teachers and students value feedbackin different ways. Discuss

Posted by kinyawa@gmail.com on August 15, 2017 in Uncategorized |

The personal dimension in teaching: why students value feedback Anna Rowe Faculty of Business and Economics, Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia Abstract Purpose – Feedback is a central element of the learning experience yet, until recently, few studies have focused directly on what students think about feedback. This paper seeks to address this issue. Design/methodology/approach – Data collected as part of a larger study investigating reasons for consistently low ratings of feedback across the higher education sector are reported. The larger study includes Rowe and Wood’s Student Feedback Questionnaire (SFQ), which gathers quantitative data on student perceptions and preferences for feedback, but also includes two open-ended questions inviting students to give written comments on why they believe feedback is important, and how the feedback they are getting could be improved. Findings – Focusing on responses to the first open-ended question and viewing comments in the context of the larger study and its findings, an analysis is offered of the students’ responses, extracting seven different student conceptions of the function of feedback. Research limitations/implications – Feedback serves a wide variety of functions in the lives of students, not limited to the implication of feedback for learning. Students are most likely to succeed in an environment where their broader social needs are met. Originality/value – The findings reported in this paper contribute to an area of educational research previously neglected, drawing attention to: the importance which students attach to feedback as a teacher’s personal response to them as individuals; and the need to take into account students’ perceptions – both positive and negative – of the emotional aspects of feedback. Keywords Feedback, Higher education, Students, Perception Paper type Research paper 1. Introduction The recent emphasis on student-centred research in education is important for alerting teachers to differences between teachers’ and students’ perceptions of what good teaching is, and to the main challenges facing the learner. Although students’ perceptions of learning often chime with the claims made by educational theory, they sometimes emphasise factors that are rarely mentioned in the education literature, nor are they taken into account in mainstream curriculum considerations (Drew, 2001). This applies to assessment and feedback too, but while there is a large body of general research available on students’ assessment preferences (Entwistle and Tait, 1990; Birenbaum, 1997; Biggs, 2003; Gijbels and Dochy, 2006; Birenbaum, 2007), fewer studies focus specifically on instructor-based feedback as seen from the students’ point of view (Chanock, 2000; Higgins et al., 2002; Weaver, 2006; Cameron, 2008; Lizzio and Wilson, 2008). Feedback has been conceptualised in different ways and, for the purpose of this paper, Hattie and Timperley’s (2007) definition will be adopted. They define feedback as information provided by lecturers and tutors on students’ performance or The current issue and full text archive of this journal is available at www.emeraldinsight.com/0951-354X.htm Why students value feedback 343 Received July 2010 Accepted July 2010 International Journal of Educational Management Vol. 25 No. 4, 2011 pp. 343-360 q Emerald Group Publishing Limited 0951-354X DOI 10.1108/09513541111136630 understanding. Within this context feedback is a “consequence of performance” (Hattie and Timperley, 2007, p. 81). The present study is part of a larger investigation of students’ perceptions of feedback, the purpose of which has been to explore reasons for student dissatisfaction with feedback in Australian universities. This investigation has unfolded in two stages. The first involved running focus groups and individual interviews with students (n ¼ 29). Using themes extracted from these, and also the existing literature on feedback, a Student Feedback Questionnaire (SFQ) was constructed. The second stage of the investigation consisted of administering the SFQ to a large sample of students across two institutions: Macquarie University and the University of Canberra. Using a five-point Likert scale, the SFQ gathered student responses to a range of issues concerning the students’ attitudes to feedback, but it also included two open questions inviting students to comment in their own words on: (1) Why feedback was important to them. (2) How feedback at their university might be improved. Analyses of quantitative data yielded by the SFQ (including a demographic analysis) and analyses of the qualitative data from the focus groups have been reported in previous papers (Rowe and Wood, 2008a, b; Rowe et al., 2008). The present paper focuses on the students’ responses to the first of the two open-ended questions. The reason for this emphasis on the first of the two questions is that the purpose of this paper is to throw light on the general issue of students’ expectations, desires and needs regarding feedback, rather than on the more particular and practical issue of how feedback could be improved at the institutions where the surveys were done. Two findings reported in earlier parts of the larger study are worth noting here. The first is that we identified two preference dimensions (PrefA and PrefB), which appeared to reflect surface and deep approaches to learning as conceptualised by Biggs (2003) and others (Entwistle and Tait, 1990; Gijbels and Dochy, 2006; Rowe and Wood, 2008b). Table I presents a sample of items from the feedback preference scale illustrating this dichotomy. Students who scored highly on the PrefA dimension welcomed opportunities to engage with the lecturer and preferred feedback that allowed them to think deeply about their subject matter. This appears to reflect a “deep” learning approach where the preference is for engaging meaningfully in learning that enhances students’ understanding of the material. By contrast students who scored highly on the PrefB dimension were less interested in understanding the material but wanted feedback, which just gave them specific answers, and disliked class participation. This dimension appears to fit the category of a surface learning approach, where the preference is for meeting course requirements with minimum effort. These results suggest that some students view feedback from a deep learning perspective, seeing it as a learning tool – in particular, an opportunity to gain a better understanding of course material viewed in its own right – while others view it primarily as an aid to achieving better course results. The second finding was that demographics emerged as a poor predictor of feedback preferences. This is important because available research suggests that a student’s preferences regarding teaching in general and assessment in particular are likely to IJEM 25,4 344 reflect the learning environment that the student finds most familiar, and that the student’s success will depend significantly on whether they are taught and assessed according to methods which they know and understand (Birenbaum, 1997; Biggs, 2003; Struyven et al., 2005; Birenbaum, 2007). Our study, in contrast, suggests that nationality, for example, is not a significant factor in determining feedback preferences. Better predictors were found to be students’ differing conceptions of feedback and the importance that they attached to it (Rowe et al., 2008). For example, students who value feedback are more likely to have a deep approach to learning. These considerations may have important implications for curriculum planning. To date, most of the literature concerned with the value and effectiveness of feedback has concentrated on the timing of feedback – in particular, the importance of quick turnaround times – and on the various modes in which feedback is offered (Rucker and Thomson, 2003). Although these considerations are important, the research findings reported in this paper suggest that the personal and emotional significance of feedback needs to be given more attention by university managers and teachers. An Australian government report in 2005 highlighted the fact that less than one-third of university students felt that teaching staff took an interest in their progress, suggesting a widespread desire for a more personal dimension in university teaching (Krause et al., 2005). Knowledge of how emotions contribute to the learning process remains very limited, despite the fact that “learning itself is an intrinsically emotional business” (Claxton, 1999, p. 15). Thus there is a lack of attention given to emotion in contemporary general texts on higher education, including Ramsden (2003) and Biggs (2003). The relative neglect of this issue may be partly attributable to a lack of agreement about how the term “emotion” is to be understood. Emotions are often defined as responses to events, with the predominant view being that they arise in reaction to particular situations, where a person makes an appraisal (conscious or unconscious) that then sets off a number of response tendencies, such as subjective experience, facial expression, Feedback A Preference dimension (deep approach) Feedback B Preference dimension (surface approach) General feedback in class helps me to learn independently It is boring when lecturers provide general feedback to the class I like it when tutors guide us to work out the answers ourselves The grade is more important to my learning than feedback Participating in classroom discussion is the most effective way to learn I do not like it when teaching staff encourage questions in class because it wastes time It is more important for me to see the reason why I received a particular grade than to know how other students went Feedback is only useful when it is positive I learn more when my tutor focuses on the questions I got wrong I prefer general feedback in class because it is not personal I learn better when the lecturer encourages me to think deeply about the subject matter I prefer it when tutors just give us the answers Written feedback is better because I can refer to it later Written feedback is unreliable because tutors have different marking criteria Table I. Sample of items in the feedback preference scale Why students value feedback 345 cognitive processing and physiological changes (Fredrickson, 2001; Nielsen and Kaszniak, 2007). For example, in failing an exam some students may feel disappointment while others may feel anger, depending on how they interpret the event. While these are particular episodes of feeling, the term “emotion” has also been used to refer to longer-term dispositions such as general happiness, loneliness or demoralisation. Whereas feelings such as these often have identifiable causes, another category of longer-term emotional states seems related more to a person’s character – for example, optimism or aggressiveness. Moods form yet a further category, consisting of general feeling states not linked to a personally meaningful event, but varying along two dimensions, as either a positive or negative affective state (Goldsmith, 1994; Fredrickson, 2001). For the purposes of this study, we will use the term “emotion” in a broad sense that includes particular episodes of feeling as well as longer-term affective states, where the latter encompass both character dispositions and moods. The relationship between emotions and feedback has recently been gaining attention in education theory (for a review see Va¨rlander, 2008). We believe that changes within the higher education sector over the last ten years have made it especially important to bring these factors into the equation. The changes include increasing student-to-staff ratios; a progressively more diverse student profile; and a shift in the student population to greater part-time enrolment. These considerations add to the challenges faced by both teachers and students in achieving their educational goals. For example, increasing student-to-staff ratios and larger class sizes (particularly in first year) make it difficult for academic staff to provide the level of personalised service that students prefer. Some research indicates that students’ level of engagement has decreased over the last ten years, and that engagement with learning needs to be more carefully planned than in the past (McInnis et al., 2000). Within this context engagement broadly refers to the “time, energy and resources students devote to activities designed to enhance their learning at university” (Krause et al., 2005, p. 31). Feedback is an essential part of this, because it provides the teacher with opportunities to deal with students’ academic development on an individual level, and can therefore serve as an antidote to the increasingly impersonalised teaching environment entailed by larger classes and higher student-to-staff ratios. The changes occurring in universities may also be creating a less sustaining and supportive social environment for students. The present study highlights the fact that feedback is perceived by students to have an important social and emotional function. This may be because it provides a way of addressing feelings of isolation and alienation that are experienced by the very large numbers of students who are studying away from home in a foreign country, a group that now comprises a very high proportion of students in Australia. For example, international students account for 25.5 per cent of Macquarie University’s total student cohort (Macquarie University, 2008). These figures approximate to those in other Australian universities, since overall about 27 per cent of Australian higher education student enrolments are international (DEST, 2008). In some faculties these figures are much higher; thus in the Macquarie University Business and Economics Faculty – from which most of the students in the present study were drawn – 57 per cent of the student cohort is IJEM 25,4 346 international (Macquarie University, 2009). The situation of large classes and high student-to-staff ratios creates a tendency for students to be viewed as nameless members of an undifferentiated “year” or “cohort”. Our data on students’ preferences for feedback suggest that an increasing number of them look to feedback as a means of satisfying a need for personal contact and emotional support, and that many are dissatisfied with the feedback they are receiving because it is not catering to this need. Current research suggests that students have to manage a number of emotional pressures and social difficulties during the course of their study. Anxiety and feelings of loneliness, for example, have been found to increase in the first year of university for students’ transitioning from high school (Larose and Boivin, 1998). Tinto’s research on student retention and attrition rates suggests that although students’ academic and emotional predispositions influence their adjustment to university, the impact of these factors also depends on the quality of their interactions with members of the academic community (Tinto, 1993; Tinto, 2006-2007). Critics of Tinto have questioned the generalisability of his results, given that his research does not include “non-traditional” students. The term “non-traditional students” is used here to refer to students not normally associated with entrants to higher education – for example older students, or those from under-represented social classes and cultural groups. These are often students who enrol part time due to work commitments. “Traditional” students are those who commence full-time university studies immediately following completion of high school. Some research suggests that social factors are less important than external ones (such as the expectations of others, work demands, family responsibilities and financial pressures) to the success of non-traditional students (Bean and Metzner, 1985; Bean, 2005). We did not collect information on the enrolment status of our participants. While the average age of our sample suggests that most of our surveyed students were “traditional”, a large proportion could also in a sense be considered “non-traditional” in that they are international. More recently there have been attempts to develop Tinto’s theory to include success factors for culturally-diverse students (Guiffrida, 2006). Some research has found that relational factors, such as social integration, play an important part in the adjustment and success of overseas students in unfamiliar learning and cultural environments (Shank et al., 1996; Delaney, 2008; Sawir et al., 2008). Our own findings suggest that demographics do not significantly affect student preferences (Rowe and Wood, 2008b). 2. Method The Student Feedback Questionnaire (SFQ) was developed using themes extracted from focus groups and individual interviews with business students in a prior study (Rowe and Wood, 2008a, b). NVivo software was used to extract themes from the data, and these themes along with others identified in the literature formed the basis of the survey questions. The questionnaire was divided into six sections: (1) Demographic data. (2) Type of feedback. (3) Perceptions of feedback. Why students value feedback 347 (4) Value of feedback. (5) Preferences for feedback. (6) Suggestions for feedback. Sections 2, 3, 4 and 5 required students to indicate their level of agreement with a series of statements on a five-point Likert scale, ranging from “strongly disagree” to “strongly agree”. For part of section 2, a five-point Likert scale with numerical points of reference (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 per cent) was used. All feedback measures were found to have good internal reliability, with the exception of 4, value of feedback, which had a smaller number of items (Rowe et al., 2008). Students were also provided with an opportunity to respond to two open-ended statements: “Feedback is important because …” and “What are your suggestions for improving feedback at [name of institution]?”. Participants were students enrolled in business and commerce-related disciplines, ranging from first-year to postgraduate-by-coursework students (883 undergraduate and 83 postgraduate students respectively). Hence it was anticipated that the surveyed students would have been exposed to a wide variety of types of feedback. There was a fairly even split of males (52 per cent) and females (48 per cent); and domestic (52 per cent) and international students (48 per cent). Of the participants 49 per cent were aged between 21-30 years. Using a randomised block design, the survey was conducted among on-campus students in the second semester of 2007 during lecture periods at two institutions in weeks two and nine of a 13-week semester. Additional details of the procedure and participants are reported in Rowe and Wood (2008b). Regarding the qualitative data from the responses to the two open questions in the SFQ, almost half the students surveyed (42 per cent) responded to the first question (why feedback is important) and 25 per cent responded to the second (how feedback can be improved). It is clear from the students’ responses that many had poor English, reflecting a previously reported finding that only 35 per cent of the sample were from an English speaking background, even though the proportion of domestic and international students was nearly equal (in Macquarie University’s Business and Economics Faculty, where most of the surveyed students were registered, 38.7 per cent of the Faculty’s 2009 intake of domestic students and 92.7 per cent of its international students did not speak English at home (Macquarie University Analytics Unit, at http://mq.edu.au/analytics)). 3. Students’ responses to the question: Why is feedback important to students? Previous research (Weaver, 2006; Pearce, 2008) and our own data (Rowe and Wood, 2008a, b) suggest that students do recognise the value of feedback. Butler and Winne (1995) make the point that traditional research has been too narrowly concerned with the effects of feedback on student learning, and that differentiating the various functions of feedback promises a better synthesis of diverse studies on feedback and instruction. IJEM 25,4 348 Seven predominant themes emerged in the response to our open-ended survey question: “Feedback is important because …” Feedback was perceived to be important: (1) As a guide towards success (that is, good grades) in the course being assessed. (2) As a learning tool. (3) As a means of academic interaction. (4) As a form of encouragement. (5) As an emotion regulator and means of reducing anxiety. (6) As an indication of respect. (7) As a sign of caring. I discuss these themes in the following, roughly in an order in which they become increasingly focused on the personal and emotional aspects of feedback. (1) Feedback as a guide towards good “results” As mentioned previously, our quantitative study indicated two prevalent preference dimensions that students have towards feedback – one inclining towards shallower “results”-oriented learning, and one inclining towards deeper learning and concerned, in particular, with an interest in understanding course material for its own sake. These attitudes emerged in the responses to our open-ended questions too. Our first theme corresponds to the first of these preferences. Here students are concerned with where they have gone wrong with an assessment task and how they might change their approach so as to perform better – that is, get better marks – in future assignments or examinations. The student wishes to learn, but the learning is seen as a means to better grades. There is a concern about getting onto the same wavelength as the lecturer, so as to perform in conformity with what she/he “wants” or is “looking for”. It lets the students know the reasoning behind grades and what needs to be done to improve. It can evaluate my progress so far, show the weakness I get whether I should keep doing [study] in the same way or put [in] more time or change the way I study. It provides an indication of the level of work expected to do well in the subject and helps to highlight strengths and weaknesses. Feedback from lecturers is especially important as they have designed the course content. I like to know objectively what they are looking for. It creates an understanding between lecturer and student as to what is required for the subject. It provides students an insight for students who [are] generally in a very large class, details on where their study is lacking or if they don’t understand a critical feature of the subject. It helps to focus study. We do not wish to suggest that it is unreasonable or “wrong” for students to have the “results”-oriented preferences reflected in the previous comments. This focus is understandable, especially in the first year or among weaker students, and it seems Why students value feedback 349 reasonable for students to expect guidance of the kind these students are asking for from lecturers. Tinto (2003, 2006-2007), for example, suggests that the provision of clear and consistent expectations regarding achievement is one of the five conditions of student success, and argues that the provision of effective feedback in first year is essential in order to identify and support students at risk, reduce attrition rates and establish support that will enable students to continue their studies. Several students emphasised that feedback provided the only opportunity for finding out whether they were on the right path with respect to their academic studies, and to communicate with lecturers and tutors individually. These students wanted feedback to include annotation and not consist simply of giving a grade. It should be personal […] A mark is not sufficient – we need to know what areas to improve on, particularly as those topics are likely to be examinable. Surprisingly few students perceived feedback as a justification of grades awarded. In the SFQ, 60 per cent of students agreed/strongly agreed that this was one of the functions of feedback. A possible explanation for this discrepancy could be the difference in the data-gathering methods used; other researchers have noticed that different methods can result in discrepant results (Zacharias, 2007). (2) Feedback as a learning tool A few students perceived feedback as means of gaining a better understanding of the course material, where the purpose seemed to be understanding for its own sake – the second of the two preference dimensions to learning I mentioned as a theme emerging from the quantitative data. I should add, however, that relatively few students expressed this attitude in the open-ended question responses. The following are some of the comments of those who did: It is a way of clarifying any gaps in knowledge concerning the subject. [Feedback is] a measure of progress and subject understanding. It gives me an understanding of my comprehension of course material. Without [feedback], university becomes an exercise in turning up to get a grade, not an education. (3) Feedback as a means of interaction and participation in the learning process The need for personal interaction with the lecturer and a sense of personal participation was a theme that emerged frequently in the students’ written comments. The following comments explicitly connect good teaching practice with interaction and dialogue: Interaction is NECESSARY to education. Smaller classes of lecture improve interactions and participation between lecturer and students. IJEM 25,4 350 It is the way we actually study, through interactions. [Feedback is] a way you communicate with both lecturer and tutor. It’s like a bridge between [the] lecturer and me. These comments support research findings suggesting that tutors’ reluctance to interact with students creates barriers to learning (Pearce, 2008). They also support the notion of a “pedagogy of relation” and a participatory model of communication founded in the idea that students learn from practical engagement with their subject – a view based on the assumption that individuals need to interact in order for learning to occur (Biesta, 2004; Bingham and Sidorkin, 2004). A concern with interaction and participation is also given attention in the research of Pearce (2008), who notes that tutors often practise a “transmissive” mode of teaching, characterised by one-way communication, which can potentially marginalise and alienate students, and limit possibilities for developing the reciprocal relationships and participatory communication that students find valuable. The term “engagement” was only linked to feedback by a small number of students, even though timely and effective feedback has been identified as one dimension of student engagement (Solomonides and Martin, 2008). It may be that students are not familiar with this term, instead using terms such as “interaction” and “participation”. (4) Feedback as encouragement “Motivation” and “encouragement” were terms commonly used by students, with a large number attributing their own lack of motivation to not being provided with enough feedback on their progress. [Feedback] […] motivates me […] helps me to feel like an individual in the masses. It’s a vital […] motivator to improve. [Feedback] motivates and encourages students in the right direction. I individually get something and it motivates me. It’s affirmation for my achievements. It’s a form of encouragement. These responses chime with students’ comments in the focus groups, and to a lesser extent in the quantitative survey, where motivation was linked to direct encouragement provided by tutors when they affirm students’ achievements in the classroom. The responses also support published research linking learning with motivation (Linnenbrink and Pintrich, 2002; Biggs and Tang, 2007) and with perceptions of academic support (Drew, 2001). The connection between learning and motivation should however not be oversimplified. It appears that motivation serves an important learning function on many levels. For example, within the context of learning and achievement, a surface approach to learning has been most strongly correlated with “extrinsic” motivation, that is, the drive to attain a separable outcome. Gaining a degree and employment opportunities on graduation are examples of Why students value feedback 351 extrinsic outcomes, which may motivate students. “Intrinsic” motivation, by contrast, refers to doing something because it is inherently interesting or enjoyable. This type of motivation, as evidenced by students who study because of the pleasure and sense of satisfaction gained from completion of the task itself, has been most strongly (and positively) correlated with a deep approach to learning (Entwistle, 1987). Different motivational frameworks will affect individual students’ responses to feedback in diverse ways. For example, if a student receives a poor mark for an assessment task and feels angry, this could either prompt the student to invest more effort in future assessments and strive for higher grades or, conversely, to become discouraged and lose interest. The response will depend on a number of factors, including the student’s learning orientation (whether it is “deep”, “surface” or “achievement” oriented), their motivations and goals (such as the pleasure gained from completing the task, the reward of good marks, or a sense of being valued), and other individual variables (for example, self-esteem and a sense of self-efficacy) (refer to Ryan and Deci (2000) for a discussion of some of these factors). Like emotion, the term “motivation” is complex and this study was not intended to fully capture the many distinctions of student meanings regarding motivation. However, it is worth mentioning that emotions and motivation are related in several ways (see Frijda, 2000). (5) Feedback as an emotion regulator and means of reducing anxiety We were surprised by how frequently students responding to the open-ended questions drew a connection between feedback and emotion – something not reflected in the quantitative data. In the published literature the finding that feedback has emotional implications is not new, although this dynamic is not currently well understood (Moore and Kuol, 2007; Va¨rlander, 2008). The general connection between emotion and learning has been the subject of a number of published studies (Drew, 2001; Pekrun et al., 2002; Park, 2004; Ja¨rvenoja and Ja¨rvela¨, 2005; Pekrun, 2005; Ainley, 2006; Beard et al., 2007; Crossman, 2007; Moore and Kuol, 2007). We have already seen implicit emotional content in the themes so far discussed – in particular, the concern with feedback as encouragement. In our student responses positive emotions were generally linked to the feelings elicited when feedback was received, and to the teacher’s emotions: It makes me feel special. It encourages me to improve my study and [I] feel re-motivated from it. It lets me know the areas of work I’m not yet covering and shows that the staff are interested in the progress of my studies. By validating good work and thereby generating positive emotions, feedback can be expected to increase the student’s sense of self-efficacy and self-esteem. But negative emotions were mentioned more often in our study than positive ones, and there were frequent references to anxiety in particular. Feedback was perceived as a way of reducing anxiety and other negative feelings such as uncertainty, a finding also made by Drew (2001). Typical comments in this category were: IJEM 25,4 352 It calms your nerves and answers questions/queries you have. It allows for improvement, understanding and closure. It takes out the guesswork of where you have done wrong or what you are required to do next time. Reduces stress. A lack of feedback was also linked to negative feelings: “The sound of silence” is not a happy song. The calming and reassuring effect of feedback can be expected to decrease negative emotions such as anxiety, confusion and fear, by clarifying where the student stands with regard to course expectations and the student’s ability to cope. This regulatory function is important because positive emotions are thought to facilitate learning, while negative emotions are thought to inhibit it (Fredrickson, 2001; Park, 2004). This does not preclude the possibility that negative emotions such as anxiety and fear can sometimes have a positive effect on learning and performance (Stanley and Burrows, 2001). (6) Feedback as an expression of respect Some students felt that the feedback they received showed insufficient respect for their work or for the viewpoints expressed in that work, or insufficient recognition of the effort they had invested in an assessment task – a theme that also emerged in the focus groups and quantitative data results. Some relevant comments were: Respect student’s opinions. I deserve more than just a grade about my assignments when I have put so much effort into finishing them. Any level of effort should be reviewed and responded to. It is important to consider the possibility that these comments – and especially the reference to respect in the first response – may indicate a clash of learning cultures. A feature of the western academic tradition is that academic disagreements are generally regarded as impersonal, and are perceived to rest simply on questions of evidence and clear reasoning. Discussions about academic or intellectual questions are thus conducted in a relatively impersonal tone. This may not be universal, in that in other traditions intellectual disagreements may sometimes have a strongly personal element. Our speculation is that this feature of the western intellectual tradition may create misunderstanding among students from other traditions, where academic viewpoints may be regarded more personally. (7) Feedback as an expression of caring Teven and associates (Teven and Gorham, 1998; Teven, 2001) found that undergraduate students perceived teachers as caring when they encouraged and responded to questions, and gave good feedback; and uncaring when they gave negative responses or were unresponsive or miserly in the provision of feedback. This conclusion was supported by our students’ responses in the focus groups, and again in their responses to our open question on why feedback is important: Why students value feedback 353 [Feedback] tells that the lecturer or tutor cares about students’ work. It tells me the staff are concerned about their students. Both the lecturers and me care about the subject [and] that’s a way of communication between us. One voice, however, seemed to be insisting that feedback is not a favour to students but one of the obligations of competent teaching: [Feedback is a] sign of how well you do your job [and] not directly a sign of caring. We speculate that the significant number of students who felt that feedback was a sign of caring indicates that many undergraduate students see the lecturer in a guardian or even quasi-parental role, where the student looks to the teacher for the fulfilment not just of their educational needs but also some of their social and emotional ones. We are inclined to link this with the fact that a large proportion of our students are international – a group which is likely to be especially vulnerable to feelings of isolation and loneliness, particularly in their first year. The significance of feedback as an opportunity for personal contact has been highlighted in several studies (Drew, 2001; Crossman, 2007; Cameron, 2008; Pearce, 2008). 4. Conclusions Our students’ responses to the statement “Feedback is important because …” offered confirmation of two findings from earlier parts of our larger study – first, that many students value feedback as a means of achieving better academic results, and second, that some see it as a way of gaining a better understanding of course concepts and ideas viewed in their own right. In both of these cases feedback is perceived as a direct aid to the learning process, by virtue of being a conduit of information and clarification regarding course content and lecturers’ expectations. What was more surprising was the number of responses attributing a variety of personal and emotional functions to feedback. The majority of responses, overall, were concerned with the effect of feedback on learning, or were raised in the context of learning issues. But many also pointed to a strong connection between feedback and students’ social needs. A visual representation of our findings is presented in Figure 1. First I will comment on the learning issues then turn to social concerns. Most students who emphasised the interactive and participatory aspects of feedback saw these as a part of a healthy learning process. They appreciated feedback as a form of intellectual interaction with the teacher – a means of moving away from a teaching model where the student passively absorbs information to one in which learning has a dialogical form. In emphasising the importance of feedback as an opportunity for a more interactive relationship with the teacher – one in which the latter responds to the former as an individual – the students appear to be calling for a more active and participatory form of learning. They want to be brought into a direct relationship with the teacher, and to be engaged in the learning process as individuals, rather than being merely a member of a group. This supports Bingham and Sidorkin’s (2004) notion of a relational pedagogy. It was gratifying to note that many students valued and desired interactive learning, although there was an implication that the teaching practices they IJEM 25,4 354 were encountering were not interactive enough. For example, some regretted being in very large classes where there is limited scope for interaction between individual students and the lecturer. Although most of the students who raised the question of participation and interaction were primarily concerned with these as a feature of learning, it is nevertheless true that, like all human interaction, contact with lecturers and other students in a classroom is a social phenomenon, and it seems likely that some students were also expressing a desire simply for more social interaction with their fellow students and teachers. The students who emphasised the motivational aspect of feedback, and saw good feedback as encouragement, as well as those who pointed to feedback as a factor in reducing anxiety or a source of reassurance, were also primarily concerned with the learning process. When students say that they feel encouraged by generous feedback, they appear to be referring to intellectual encouragement: we can interpret them to be saying that this kind of interaction with the lecturer enhances their confidence in their own academic ability, and therefore increases their enthusiasm for the subject, and perhaps for other intellectual work. Again, their comments about the importance of feedback as an emotion regulator and reducer of stress seem for the most part to be concerned with their learning, where anxiety and other negative emotions are taken to be an obstacle to engagement with the discipline. We can also deduce from these responses that feedback is an important factor in the general emotional wellbeing of students. For most students, after all, studying is their primary occupation, and the pleasure and satisfaction they get from their studies is likely to be a major contributor to their general sense of happiness. So here again, it is reasonable to infer a message that feedback plays a larger role in students’ lives than a merely educational one. Turning to the responses, which emphasised feedback as an indication of respect, or as an acknowledgement of effort, it seems fair to say that these students were focused Figure 1. Functions of feedback Why students value feedback 355 primarily on the personal and social aspects of feedback, rather than its specifically educational significance. To respect or acknowledge someone is to treat them as an equal, and it is unlikely that students who raised this factor were asking that their teachers treat them as intellectual equals, and far more likely that they were asking for “respect” or “recognition” in a more general, social sense. One way a lecturer might fail in the latter case, especially when teaching very large classes, is by treating students merely as names on a very long class list – for instance, offering feedback merely in the form of a grade, with no comments or only cursory ones, and with none that engage with the student’s individual insights or mistakes. It is of course academically helpful to the student if feedback is individualised, but our suggestion is that failing to provide personalised feedback is not merely academically unhelpful but can also be experienced by the student as personally demeaning. With large class sizes and high student-to-staff ratios, students can easily feel isolated – a nameless member of a featureless group (White, 2006). We believe that the students’ insistence on respect or recognition is a signal to teachers that feedback is a way for them to address these feelings of isolation by engaging with students as individuals. This engagement will naturally revolve around the academic subject being assessed, but nonetheless it can also serve the social function of engaging with the student in a one-on-one relationship that the student values for its own sake. Turning, finally, to the students who spoke of feedback as an indication of caring, it seems likely that these students were referring to the personal dimension of feedback – that is, as a form of contact with the teacher not merely as an academic mentor but as a “mentor” in the broader sense of a guardian or warden, hence someone with a concern for the students’ broader wellbeing. It seems very likely that undergraduate students who have proceeded to university immediately after school and are living away from home, and international students – who are not only away from their families, but removed from their home countries – could be looking for precisely this kind of relationship with lecturers. Feedback provides a small but significant opportunity for fulfilling that role. In general, our study shows that feedback has a wide variety of functions in the lives of students, and that these are not limited to the implication of feedback for learning in particular, but range over a number of factors affecting the student’s general wellbeing. Our results support the idea that, even from a learning perspective, it is important to take into account that students are not just learners but people, and social beings in particular. They are likely to succeed best as students in an environment where their broader human needs are met. 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(2005), The First Year Experience in Australian Universities: Findings from a Decade of National Studies, Department of Science Education and Training, Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra, available at: www.dest.gov.au/sectors/higher_education/publications_resources/profiles/first_year_ experience.htm (accessed 30 June 2010). Larose, S. and Boivin, M. (1998), “Attachment to parents, social support expectations, and socioemotional adjustment during the high school-college transition”, Journal of Research on Adolescence, Vol. 8 No. 1, pp. 1-27. Linnenbrink, E.A. and Pintrich, P.R. (2002), “Motivation as an enabler for academic success”, School Psychology Review, Vol. 31 No. 3, pp. 313-27. Lizzio, A. and Wilson, K. (2008), “Feedback on assessment: students’ perceptions of quality and effectiveness”, Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, Vol. 33 No. 3, pp. 263-75. McInnis, C., James, R. and Hartley, R. (2000), Trends in the First Year Experience, Department of Education, Training and Youth Affairs, Commonwealth of Australia, Canberra, available at: www.dest.gov.au/sectors/higher_education/publications_resources/profiles/archives/ trends_in_the_first_year_experience_university.htm (accessed 30 June 2010). Macquarie University (2008), Macquarie University Annual Report 2008, Macquarie University, Sydney, available at: www.mq.edu.au/university/about/reports.html (accessed 30 June 2010). Macquarie University (2009), Macquarie at a Glance – 2008 Enrolments, Macquarie University, Sydney, available at: www.mq.edu.au/university/about/glance.html (accessed 11 January 2010). Moore, S. and Kuol, K. (2007), “Matters of the heart: exploring the emotional dimensions of educational experience in recollected accounts of excellent teaching”, International Journal for Academic Development, Vol. 12 No. 2, pp. 87-98. IJEM 25,4 358 Nielsen, L. and Kaszniak, A.W. (2007), “Conceptual, theoretical, and methodological issues in inferring subjective emotion experience”, in Coan, J.A. and Allen, J.J.B. (Eds), Handbook of Emotion Elicitation and Assessment, Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 361-75. Park, S. (2004), “Building bridge between learning and positive emotion: how to apply emotional factor in instructional designing process?”, paper presented at the Association for Educational Communications and Technology, 19-30 October, Chicago, IL. Pearce, J. (2008), “Pedagogy and engagement: the role of relationships in supporting university students from low socio-economic backgrounds”, paper presented at the AARE 2007 International Educational Research Conference – Research Impacts: Proving or Improving?, 24-29 November 2007, Fremantle. Pekrun, R. (2005), “Progress and open problems in educational emotion research”, Learning and Instruction, Vol. 15, pp. 497-506. Pekrun, R., Goetz, T., Titz, W. and Perry, R.P. (2002), “Academic emotions in students’ self-regulated learning and achievement: a program of qualitative and quantitative research”, Educational Psychologist, Vol. 37 No. 2, pp. 91-105. Ramsden, P. (2003), Learning to Teach in Higher Education, 2nd ed., Routledge, London. Rowe, A.D. and Wood, L.N. (2008a), “What feedback do students want?”, paper presented at the AARE 2007 International Educational Research Conference – Research Impacts: Proving or Improving?, 24-29 November 2007, Fremantle, available at: www.aare.edu.au/07pap/ row07086.pdf (accessed 29 June 2010). Rowe, A.D. and Wood, L.N. (2008b), “Student perceptions and preferences for feedback”, Asian Social Science, Vol. 43 No. 3, pp. 78-88. Rowe, A.D., Wood, L.N. and Petocz, P. (2008), “Engaging students: student preferences for feedback”, paper presented at the Higher Education Research and Development Society of Australasia (HERDSA) Conference, 1-4 July, Rotorua, available at: www.herdsa.org.au/ wp-content/uploads/conference/2008/papers/Rowe.pdf (accessed 29 June 2010). Rucker, M.L. and Thomson, S. (2003), “Assessing student learning outcomes: an investigation of the relationship among feedback measures”, College Student Journal, Vol. 37 No. 3, pp. 400-4. Ryan, R.M. and Deci, E.L. (2000), “Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being”, American Psychologist, Vol. 55 No. 1, pp. 68-78. Sawir, E., Marginson, S., Deumert, A., Nyland, C. and Ramia, G. (2008), “Loneliness and international students: an Australian study”, Journal of Studies in International Education, Vol. 12 No. 2, pp. 148-80. Shank, M.D., Walker, M. and Hayes, T.J. (1996), “Cross-cultural differences in student expectations”, Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, Vol. 7 No. 1, pp. 17-32. Solomonides, I. and Martin, P. (2008), “All this talk of engagement is making me itch”, in Bryson, C. and Hand, L. (Eds), Aspects of Student Engagement – SEDA Special 22, Staff and Educational Development Association, London, pp. 13-17. Stanley, R.O. and Burrows, G.D. (2001), “Varieties and functions of human emotion”, in Payne, R. and Cooper, C. (Eds), Emotions at Work: Theory, Research and Applications for Management, John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, pp. 2-19. Struyven, K., Dochy, F. and Janssens, S. (2005), “Students’ perceptions about evaluation and assessment in higher education: a review”, Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, Vol. 30 No. 4, pp. 325-41. Why students value feedback 359 Teven, J.J. (2001), “The relationships among teacher characteristics and perceived caring”, Communication Education, Vol. 50 No. 2, pp. 159-69. Teven, J.J. and Gorham, J. (1998), “A qualitative analysis of low inference student perceptions of teacher caring and non-caring behaviors within the college classroom”, Communication Research Reports, Vol. 15 No. 3, pp. 288-98. Tinto, V. (1993), Leaving College: Rethinking the Causes and Cures of Student Attrition, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL. Tinto, V. (2003), “Promoting student retention through classroom practice”, paper presented at Enhancing Student Retention: Using International Policy and Practice Conference, 5-7 November, Amsterdam, available at: www.staffs.ac.uk/access-studies/docs/AmsterpaperVT(1).pdf (accessed 30 June 2010). Tinto, V. (2006-2007), “Research and practice of student retention: what next?”, Journal of College Student Retention, Vol. 8 No. 1, pp. 1-19. Va¨rlander, S. (2008), “The role of students’ emotions in formal feedback situations”, Teaching in Higher Education, Vol. 13 No. 2, pp. 145-56. Weaver, M.R. (2006), “Do students value feedback? Student perceptions of tutors’ written responses”, Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, Vol. 31 No. 3, pp. 379-94. White, N.R. (2006), “Tertiary education in the noughties: the student perspective”, Higher Education Research & Development, Vol. 25 No. 3, pp. 231-46. Zacharias, N.T. (2007), “Teacher and student attitudes towards teacher feedback”, Regional Language Centre Journal, Vol. 38 No. 1, pp. 38-52. About the author Anna Rowe is a Doctoral Student enrolled in the Department of Business, in the Faculty of Business and Economics, at Macquarie University, Sydney, Australia. Her research is in the area of student and teacher experiences in higher education. She is interested in perceptions of the learning experience, in particular emotions, and how people’s beliefs and understandings facilitate and/or hinder the learning process. Her other areas of interest include: the role of relationships in teaching and learning; feedback; inclusive practice; and graduate attributes. Anna Rowe can be contacted at: anna.rowe@mq.edu.au IJEM 25,4 360 To purchase reprints of this article please e-mail: reprints@emeraldinsight.com Or visit our web site for further details: www.emeraldinsight.com/reprints Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

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Social networks in businesses

Posted by kinyawa@gmail.com on August 15, 2017 in Uncategorized |

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Business Innovation in health care sector

Posted by kinyawa@gmail.com on August 15, 2017 in Uncategorized |

All HI6008 Students Enrol in the Semester 2/2017 need to follow below Assignment structure:
1. Introduction
2. Project Objective
3. Project Scope
4. Literature Review
(Students’ needs to do full literature review (2000 -2500 words) on chosen topic)
5. Conclusion
6. Reference List
7. Appendix
NOTE: Students should do consultation with lecturer regarding to research topic selection before literature review.

All HI6008 Students Enrol in the Semester 2/2017 need to follow below Assignment structure:
1. Introduction
2. Project Objective
3. Project Scope
4. Literature Review
(Students’ needs to do full literature review (2000 -2500 words) on chosen topic)
5. Conclusion
6. Reference List
7. Appendix
NOTE: Students should do consultation with lecturer regarding to research topic selection before literature review.

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organisation (company) that is using accounting software packages in Australia.

Posted by kinyawa@gmail.com on August 15, 2017 in Uncategorized |

HI5019 STRATEGIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS T2 2017 HOLMES INSTITUTE FACULTY OF HIGHER EDUCATION Assignment 1 (Literature Review) Individual Assignment HI5019 STRATEGIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS T2 2017 WEEK 6 Friday 5 pm Each student will write a literature review of NOT more than 2000 words. The review should demonstrate that the student has thoroughly researched their topic. Students should use examples of business practice from the scholarly journals papers, conferences, books and professional magazines to support their arguments The literature review would be on an organisation (company) that is using accounting software packages in Australia. The research would cover: PART 1 1. The current organizational structure 2. What operational problems (e.g., inefficiency, errors) do you think the organisation could experience because of this structure? 3. What is the most likely system acquisition method— commercial software, custom software, or ERP? 4. Describes and prepare a system flowchart of the sales procedures for the chosen organisation (company) 5. Identify any control problems in the system and what sorts of fraud are possible in this system? PART 2 1. Development and adoption of the accounting software packages, 2. The current market size, 3. Identify the leaders in the market and what gives them the competitive advantage, 4. Identify the current gaps or challenges encountered by users or customers of accounting software/packages and make relevant suggestions or recommendations. HI5019 STRATEGIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS T2 2017 Submission Requirements: Research reports are to be presented in size 12 Times New Roman or 10 Calibri Font and double spaced. The research should include a list of at least 5 references used in the research report and a bibliography of the wider reading done to familiarize oneself with the topic. Submission: • Soft copy to self-check and Final Submission with cover sheet You are reminded to read the “Plagiarism” section of the course description. Your research should be a synthesis of ideas from a variety of sources expressed in your own words. All reports must use the Harvard referencing style. Marking rubrics are attached. Assessment Criteria: Score Very Good (15/15) Good (11/15) Satisfactory (9/15) Unsatisfactory (5/15) Presentation and writing style /15 marks Information is well organized. Correct layout including times new roman, font size 12 or calibri, font size10, double spaced. About the right length. Very well written, excellent paraphrasing and proper grammar and punctuation are used throughout. Information is organized, Correct layout including times new roman, font size 12 or calibri, font size10, double spaced. About the right length. Well written, some paraphrasing and proper grammar and punctuation Information is somewhat organized, Some elements of layout or length incorrect. Proper grammar and punctuation mostly used, but overuse of direct quotes. Information is poorly organized, Some elements of layout or length incorrect. Proper grammar and punctuation not always used. Excessive overuse of direct quotes Score Very Good (15/15) Good (11/15) Satisfactory (9/15) Unsatisfactory (5/15) Introduction /15 marks Introduces the topic of the research report in an extremely engaging manner which arouses the reader’s interest. Gives a detailed general background and indicates the overall “plan”. Introduces the topic of the research report in an engaging manner which arouses the reader’s interest. Gives some general background and indicates the overall “plan” of the report. Satisfactorily introduces the topic of the research report. Gives a general background. Indicates the overall “plan” of the report. Introduces the topic of the research report, but omits a general background of the topic and/or the overall “plan” of the report. Score Very Good (20/20) Good (15/20) Satisfactory (10/20) Unsatisfactory (7/20) Evidence of Research /20 marks Substantial range of appropriate and current, supportive evidence Good range of appropriate and current, supportive evidence. Suitable range of supportive evidence used. Not always appropriate and/or current. Minimum cited. Insufficient range or number of supportive evidence used. HI5019 STRATEGIC INFORMATION SYSTEMS T2 2017 Score Very Good (30/30) Good (23/30) Satisfactory (16/30) Unsatisfactory (10/30) Development of Discussion /30 marks Logical, insightful, original discussion with wellconnected paragraphs. Evidence of full engagement with the literature found, with relevant and detailed analysis. Detailed, original discussion develops logically with some connection between adjoining paragraphs. Understanding of reading shown. Some relevant analysis. Adequate discussion develops logically. Understanding of reading shown. Few relevant analysis. Inadequate discussion of issues and/or lacking in logical flow Little/no demonstrated understanding of reading. None/little discussion or analysis. Score Very Good (10/10) Good (7/10) Satisfactory (5/10) Unsatisfactory (3/10) Conclusion /10 marks An interesting, well written summary of the main points. An excellent final comment on the subject, based on the information provided. A good summary of the main points. A good final comment on the subject, based on the information provided. Satisfactory summary of the main points. A final comment on the subject, but introduced new material. Poor/no summary of the main points. A poor final comment on the subject and/or new material introduced. Score Very Good (10/10) Good (7/10) Satisfactory (5/10) Unsatisfactory (3/10) Referencing /10 marks Correct referencing (Harvard) All quoted material in quotes and acknowledged. All paraphrased material acknowledged. Correctly set out reference list and bibliography included. Mostly correct referencing (Harvard) All quoted material in quotes and acknowledged. All paraphrased material acknowledged. Mostly correct setting out reference list and bibliography included. Mostly correct referencing (Harvard) Some problems with quoted material and paraphrased material Some problems with the reference list or bibliography. Not all material correctly acknowledged. Some problems with the reference list or bibliography. Total /100 marks Final marks /20 General Comments:

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How is oral language development supported in the Australian educational context?

Posted by kinyawa@gmail.com on August 15, 2017 in Uncategorized |

To produce an oral presentation for 6 minutes.

Your presentation should incorporate:

an introduction which provides an overview of the material within the presentation
a description of:
the Australian educational context, in particular the requirements of the EYLF or Australian Curriculum in terms of supporting oral language development
the emergent perspective on language learning, including how this perspective influences curriculum implementation and teaching strategies for children in early childhood or early primary settings
an example of a specific learning experience to support oral language development. This must include both a description of the learning experience, the context within which it would be delivered (i.e. in an early learning centre or primary school) and how it relates to the curriculum elements (EYLF or AC) described in your response to the first bullet point above
the teaching methods that would support the learning experience and how these relate to the emergent perspective
a conclusion which sums up the content of the presentation.
You should strive to demonstrate the breadth and depth of your understanding of the subject. While you are required to focus on a particular learning experience and activity with detailed explanation (depth), you should also explain how the activities could be adapted, extended and changed for different situations, age groups, and diverse needs and interests (breadth).

Consider the needs of your audience as you plan and deliver your presentation. Remember that you will be addressing a professional audience, so your presentation should be pitched at that level.

You must incorporate information from relevant literature into your presentation. This should include both specific references from the EYLF or Australian Curriculum and supporting academic literature. You must also prepare a reference list, formatted using the APA (6th ed.) referencing system.

You may like to also submit photographs of any props or other resources used. These can be included in the same document as your reference list.

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