A case-control study of the relationship between liver cirrhosis and alcohol use.

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Consider each of the following scenarios and explain whether the variable in question is a confounder:
A study of the relationship between exercise and heart attacks that is conducted among women who do not smoke. Explain whether gender is a confounder.
A case-control study of the relationship between liver cirrhosis and alcohol use. In this study, smoking is associated with drinking alcohol and is a risk factor for liver cirrhosis among both non-alcoholics and alcoholics. Explain whether smoking is a confounder.

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