All guidelines are mentioned in the attached document. Following is the list of topics. Choose any one for the report
List of Topics
1. Process-plant Systems:
(e.g. refineries) These have highly complex interlinked pipe systems. How are pumps and
pipe lengths arranged/chosen by the designers of these systems?
2. Water-plants and/or Irrigation Schemes:
These feature open-channel flows to manage the movement ofwater. Investigate and describe
the causes and effects of friction in such channels.
3. Aerodynamic skin-friction drag on aircraft, trains and cars:
Investigate and describe the importance of this and factors that determine how much skinfriction
drag is experienced and what engineering-design measures can be taken to reduce
4. Hydrodynamic skin-friction drag on ships, boats, surf-boards etc.:
Investigate and describe the importance and factors that determine how much skin-friction
drag is experienced and what engineering-design measures can be taken to reduce it.
5. Blood flow in the human body: Investigate and describe examples of the effects of flow
friction in the blood-flow system of the human body and what effects this may have, for
example, in terms of healthy function and illness.
6. Fluid Mechanics in sports technology:
Reducing drag even if only incrementally, either on the human body or on equipment such
as a javelin or bicycle, can make a major difference in competition. Taking up to three
examples (or just focusing on one), describe the importance of friction drag and techniques
used to reduce it (or increase it, if that produces a benefit) in sports technology.
7. Slurry flows in the resource industries:
Your laboratory work entailed the use of water which is a Newtonian fluid (see Chapter 1 of
the lecture series). Slurry is a non-Newtonian fluid (because it is a combination of a liquid
and solid) and clearly it generates friction when it flows. Investigate and describe friction in
slurry flows (pumped through pipes and/or driven by gravity in channels).
8. Underground mine ventilation:
Efficient ventilation is critical for workers and equipment operating in underground mines.
Its main purposes are the supply of fresh air and the extraction of potentially toxic gases, dust
and heat. Investigate and describe designs of ventilation systems and the factors contributing
to fluid friction in underground tunnels.
9. Biological exploitation of flow friction:
At the very small scale (typically where the Reynolds number is very low), fluid friction
forces can be large (relative to other forces). Through evolution,Nature has exploited friction,
for example in the dispersion of pollen or the swimming of micro-organisms. Investigate
and describe examples of where Nature has adapted to and benefited from the effect of flow
10. Animal locomotion:
It is advantageous (in terms of natural selection) for animals to experience low skin-fiction
drag when they swim or fly because, for the same energy expenditure, they can move faster
or keep moving for longer. Using examples, investigate and describe the ways that animals
have evolved so that their friction drag has become lower.