Alyssa is a 74-year-old female patient who presents to her primary care provider for a routine physical. She states that she feels â€œquite healthyâ€ and has no complaints other than mild back pain. She has a family history of various cancers, diabetes, and osteoporosis, so she knows that it is important to stay active and keep up with screenings and annual physical exams. Alyssaâ€™s provider finds that she has lost 10 pounds since last yearâ€™s exam. She is almost a full inch shorter, as well.
- Explain, in your own words, how Alyssaâ€™s loss of height could be related to her possible osteoporosis diagnosis.
- Why might Alyssaâ€™s provider ask her about her diet? Provide two reasons and explain how they are related to osteoporosis.
- Explain how the body controls calcium levels in the bones and blood. Be sure to describe the roles of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitonin in detail.
- Alyssaâ€™s doctor recommends that she increase her calcium intake. List at least five foods that have high calcium content.
- Alyssa does some research on risk factors for osteoporosis and comes across the term â€œpeak bone mass.â€ In your own words, explain what peak bone mass means and at which age it typically occurs.
- If Alyssa does have osteoporosis, can she reverse its effects on her bone density? Explain why or why not. What is the best course of action she can take to keep her bones as healthy as possible?
Case study 2
Kaysee has always been a fairly healthy child. She has no history of any major illness. However, her physician is surprised that she has sustained two fractured bones from a relatively mild trauma. List and describe three possible underlying conditions that would increase Kayseeâ€™s risk of fracture. (Keep her age in mind.)
- In your own words, describe the term â€œangiogenesisâ€ and explain how it relates to fracture healing.
- Considering Kayseeâ€™s age, could this injury impact bone growth at her epiphyseal plates? Why or why not?