I have three of the five resources available I will upload. I need two more. The subject is “How to help prevent pressure ulcers in hip fractures”
This work of this assignment is based on the five studies you retrieved from the database search in Written Assignment 2.
Draft a critical appraisal of each of the five studies.
- Review and summarize each study for appropriate measures of validity, reliability, and applicability based on the type of study/evidence you have compiled.
- Use the rapid clinical appraisal tools found in Melnyk and Fineout-Overholt, Appendix B, that are appropriate for the level of evidence that you are appraising.
- Complete an evaluation/synthesis table for all of the studies. An example of a template can be found in Appendix C.
- Conclude the appraisal by including a summary statement, relevant to practice, from the reviewed literature that identifies the strength of the evidence and the next steps to be taken with regard to your critical appraisal.
- If the evidence is strong, you should conclude that a practice change or review of practice is indicated.
- If the evidence is lacking or weak, you should conclude that you would add to the body of knowledge in this area by designing an appropriate research study.
Examples of evidence summary statements are included below.
Evidence Summary Statements and Examples
These statements are the synthesis into single meaningful statement(s) of the â€œstate of scienceâ€ (in other words, the relevant research that was found and synthesized in the CARERQ). The evidence summary statement is the part of the evidence synthesis that is most clinically relevant and concrete. Evidence summary statements should include:
- What intervention is performed (in broad terms).
- What the evidence states is the expected outcome of performing the intervention.
Evidence Summary Statement Example 1
â€œSeveral clinical trials have found that giving beta-blockers within 12 to 24 hours after arrival to AMIs results in up to a 15% reduction in mortality.â€
- What is the intervention? â€œGiving beta-blockers within 12 to 24 hours upon arrival.â€
- What is the expected outcome? â€œA reduction in AMI mortality rate of up to 15%.â€
Evidence Summary Statement Example 2
â€œMultiple randomized controlled clinical trials have shown that when tPA is given within three hours of stroke symptoms, favorable outcomes are increased by approximately 12%.â€
- What is the intervention? â€œGiving tPA within three hours of stroke symptoms.â€
- What is the expected outcome? â€œFavorable outcomes (e.g., return of function) increased in stroke patients by 12%.â€
Evidence Summary Statement Example 3
â€œIn a large randomized controlled clinical trial, it was shown that giving 160 mg of aspirin daily alone can reduce mortality by approximately 10% in AMIs.â€
- What is the intervention? â€œGiving 160 mg aspirin daily.â€
- What is the expected outcome: â€œA reduction in AMI mortality rate of approximately 10%.â€
Not all summary statements will be this straightforward, but these are clear examples. Please note that the statement generally is broad; it does not contain many operational definitions. It does not tell you HOW to get where you need to go; that is, it does not define the processes that need to be put into place (e.g., to get a stroke victim into the emergency department well before three hours have p