ENGAGEMENT JOURNAL ON ETHICAL THEORIES
A. Resources: Use the PowerPoint on: ETHICS, ETHICAL POSITIONS, AND ETHICAL THEORIES (UNIT 5 RESOURCES)
B. VIDEO RESOURCES
GUIDE QUESTIONS PER ETHICAL THEORY
ON ETHICAL EGOISM
1. Describe ethical egoism as consequentialist ethics, its justification in psychological egoism? Describe how human nature influenced the mind of ethical egoists?Â
2. Compare Thomas Hobbes vs Ayn Rand’s resolution to the conflict in this ethical theory?
3. Describe the meaning of utilitarianism as consequentialist ethics, its justification in the utility principle of human nature? Describe what is in human nature that influenced utilitarians to think as the basis for right or wrong?
4. Compare act utiliarianism vs rule utiliarianism? which one provides long term vs short term happiness. (Watch the video to understand the difference).
ON NATURAL LAW ETHICS BY AQUINAS
5. What is the Natural Law ethical theory? What is the foundation or ethical ground of this theory? Ethical grounding means –is man’s nature as the basis for this theory? or is it God the creator as the basis for right or wrong?
6. Give at least two examples of moral issues that violate natural law ethical theory? Describe each and why is there a violation based on the ethical groundings?
ON DUTY ETHICS BY KANT
7. What is Kant’s Duty ethics as a deontological ethical theory? What is the basis or ethical grounding of this theory?Â
8. Describe the “universality” principle as the first maxim of this theory? What does it mean by being universal in my acting? (cf video on Categorical imperative crash course to understand this concept?)
ON VIRTUE ETHICS BY ARISTOTLE
9. What is virtue ethics of Aristotle? Why is this also called “character building” moral theory different from other theories?Â
10. Â Explain the goal of this ethical theory, eudaimonia? How to achieve eudaimonia? Discuss “arete” as a way to eudaimonia? what does “arete” mean in building ethical behavior?