In Tyler Cowanâ€™s statement, â€œLabor markets are tough, and not always fair, but intelligence will be rewarded for a long time to come,” he is referring to people that not only have the technological skills to work with computers or work on computers but those that have ability to integrate that technology with solving real-world problems.Cowen predicts that increasing technology and globalization will place these people in demand and ultimately they will become the high earners.Cowan frequently discusses intelligence.In some instances he refers to machine intelligence such as advanced automation in the modern workplace, other times he refers to general intelligence and diverse intelligences such as the STEM fields, marketing, and management.The big earners that Cowan refers to in his article would be those in Robert Reichâ€™s â€œSymbolic Analytic Servicesâ€ category. People in this category are problem identifiers and problem solvers, and include scientists, engineers, and designers.Both Reich and Cowan believe these people are less vulnerable to being replaced by machine intelligence or replaced by outsourcing in the global economy.
When Reich says, â€œThe only true competitive advantage lies in skill in solving, identifying, and brokering new problemsâ€ I think he is speaking to the symbolic analysts. These people will identify and solve new problems in business and industry. These jobs which will identify and solve new problems in business and industry include research scientists, design engineers, software engineers, civil engineers, biotechnology engineers, sound engineers and also includes different types of consultants including management consultants, financial consultants, and energy consultants. According to Reich, these individuals, â€œsolve, identify, and broker problems by manipulating symbols. They simplify reality into abstract images that can be rearranged…and then eventually transformed back into reality.â€ The reason he says that they have a true competitive advantage is that these skills are hard to learn and they are hard to replicate in advanced artificial intelligence systems, so these jobs are the true competitors and have the most job security.