What is epigenetics? How are epigenetic mechanisms linked to DNA methylation, chromatin remodeling, and RNA interference? How is epigenetic transgenerational inheritance linked to the effects of DES in woman who took the drug during pregnancy?
2. What are the consequences of genetic imprinting? How does it occur?
3. What is evidence-based practice? How can evidence-based practice guidelines be applied to clinical practice?
4. One study is attempting to link injuries to causative exposure while another is attempting to link infectious disease to causative exposure. Which study may be easier to conduct? Why?
5. Describe in detail the sympathetic arousal mechanisms activated by stress. How might that stress response affect the immune system? Give at least one specific example.
6. What parts of the brain work together to interpret false threats as real threats? Explain the mechanisms behind this interaction.
7. Discuss regulation of food uptake by adipose tissue and GI hormones.
8. How do substances associated with substance use disorder affect the brain? What neural systems show activation? Decreased activity? How do these mechanisms related to symptoms?
9. Explain in detail the link between obstructive sleep apnea and blood gas abnormalities. How are these abnormalities linked then to blood pressure and to the most effective treatment?
10. An increase in plasma osmolality can cause fluid to shift from the ICF to the ECF. What are some possible causes of this increase? What is the underlying mechanism causing this shift? What might be seen clinically?
11. A patient is prescribed a loop diuretic. What electrolytes might be affected? What are the possible effects on cardiac function? Explain the underlying mechanisms.
12. Aspirin (salicylate) overdose has been associated with respiratory alkalosis. Explain the mechanism underlying this process. Would you expect this to be exacerbated in someone with kidney disease? Why or why not?
13. Tetany can be a symptom of severe alkalosis. Explain the underlying mechanisms behind this observation.
14. A patient with Type 1 diabetes and COPD is most likely to present with which type of mixed acid-base imbalance? Explain the mechanisms underlying this.
15. Cystic fibrosis is a channelopathy. What does that mean? How does this link contribute mechanistically to the signs and symptoms of CF?
16. How does oxidative stress contribute to development of respiratory distress syndrome in premature babies?
17. Is gangrene an apoptotic or necrotic process? How are wet and dry gangrene alike? Different? What are the mechanisms underlying any differences?
18. Is the inflammatory response a good thing or a bad thing? Explain your answer and cite specific examples in your explanation.
19. Compare and contrast acute inflammation with chronic inflammation. Include specific examples.
20. Compare â€œdriver mutationsâ€ with â€œpassenger mutations.â€ Explain the role of proto-oncogenes and mutator genes in the process of tumor development.
21. Explain the three mechanisms used by contemporary biologic treatments to enhance the immune systemâ€™s response to cancer.
22. How might superantigens lead to toxic shock syndrome? How are cytokines involved?
23. What is herd immunity? Explain the immune mechanisms underlying herd immunity.
24. Are â€œallergy shotsâ€ a type of immunization? Explain your answer by including immune mechanisms and specific examples.
25. Explain in detail why we donâ€™t normally develop autoantibodies to our own tissues and cells.
26. Why is an HIV-infected person highly contagious in the 2-4 week period following infection? Can this be detected by Western blot? Explain your answers.
27. Discuss the mechanisms underlying development of opportunistic infections and cancers in AIDS patients.
28. Distinguish between acute leukemia and chronic leukemia, and between lymphoid and myeloid leukemias.
29. A patient complains of â€œswollen glands.â€ How might you distinguish between lymphadenopathy caused by inflammation from that caused by non-Hodgkin lymphoma?